Varicose veins are not just an aesthetic defect in the legs. It is a direct catalyst for the disruption of tissue trophism and the occurrence of various complications. In the later stages, varicose veins cause trophic ulcers, fistulas and atrophic changes in the skin.
The mechanism of development of varicose veins
Varicose veins are considered a "female" disease because, in fact, more women than men suffer from it. Although the latter are not immune to the appearance of varicose veins due to sex. It is believed that a person without a genetic predisposition can get varicose veins due to the heavy work associated with standing or sitting for long periods of time. An important role in the development of the disease is endocrine disorders, unhealthy lifestyle, irrational nutrition, alimentary-constitutional or hormonal obesity.
The disease is associated with thinning of the venous walls, which leads to pathological elongation and irreversible dilation of the vessel. This process catalyzes the formation of characteristic "knots". Varicose veins can be caused by a genetically determined deficiency of the vascular valves.
Pay attention to your loved ones, especially your parents. If the father or mother has visible varicose veins, you should be careful, if you have disturbing symptoms, visit a phlebologist in a timely manner and also take preventive measures.
Varicose veins are caused by the following events:
- Taking hormonal medications (including contraception);
- Obesity or obesity;
- Static physical activity in a vertical position of the body;
- Mechanical injuries of the lower extremities;
- Hereditary predisposition (congenital insufficiency of venous valves that move blood through the veins).
The disease can also affect the internal organs - stomach, esophagus, intestines, uterus, testicles and spermatic cord. Causes diseases such as varicocele and hemorrhoids. The first pathology leads to infertility when treatment is neglected.
However, most venous disease affects the lower extremities. This is due to the anatomical distal location of local vessels. In addition, venous pressure in the lower extremities increases sharply under certain loads, which leads to the development and progression of the disease.
Varicose veins cannot be called specific and can affect any person, even if under certain conditions there is no hereditary predisposition to such pathologies.
Diagnosis of varicose veins is not difficult for a competent phlebologist.
The specialist conducts a general survey of the patient, carefully examines his personal and family history, requires complaints (prescription, severity, intensity of symptoms). Then an instrumental examination is scheduled (usually an ultrasound examination is sufficient).
Surgical treatment of varicose veins
Surgical treatment is the most effective in the treatment of varicose veins. It is usually treated in the later stages of the disease, but patients often have no choice but to seek professional help.
Phlebectomy is the most common surgical procedure aimed at complete cutting and removal of the affected vessel. This procedure is considered radical and aggressive, but it is the one that provides the most obvious therapeutic effect.
Previously, phlebectomy belonged to the category of open surgical interventions. The classic operation was performed according to the traditional scheme with incisions, vascular resection and construction of an open skin area. As a result, conventional phlebectomy has resulted in scars that cannot aesthetically overcome varicose veins. For this reason, many women did not see the point in resorting to such measures. Phlebectomy was more often performed when there was a real need for health and well-being.
In modern phlebological practice, a combined mini-phlebectomy of the saphenous veins is performed. It is a minimally invasive intervention performed by applying miniature punctures to the skin. Through them, varicose veins are inserted into a vein, after which the vein is removed to the incision. The closure of the vessels is not performed because the bleeding is stopped by local compression.
Unlike classical surgery, mini-phlebectomy does not cause general complications (varicose syndrome) and relapses, does not require the use of general anesthesia during the procedure, and is not characterized by laborious and painful rehabilitation.
Sclerotherapy is a treatment that involves the local injection of drugs to "stick" to a vein.
This procedure is simple and quick, often does not even require local anesthesia. The drug is injected into the affected vein with the thinnest insulin syringe, so the patient does not feel any subjective discomfort during sclerotherapy. After the drug is distributed, the specialist compresses the vein to seal it. Manipulation is performed using an elastic bandage or latex pillow.
The final stage of the procedure is the wearing of compression stockings. The patient is advised to wear it and take some precautions during recovery. No hospital stay is required after sclerotherapy, and one session is sufficient to achieve maximum results (up to 10 injections are given into the vein during its implementation).
The procedure is remarkable for its excellent cosmetic effect - the knots join quickly, and scars do not form in their place.
Hardware treatment of varicose veins includes laser therapy. EVLT (EVLO) or endovasal laser coagulation (endovenous laser obliteration) is relevant for any form and stage of the disease. This involves inserting a light guide into the affected vessel and activating the device. Under the influence of light radiation, the plasma in the vein boils and the vessel itself becomes a connective tissue cord (scar) and dies.
EVLK (EVLO) is performed even in conditions of acute thrombosis to prevent their complications.
The technique is surgical, but does not require hospitalization and complex rehabilitation.
Conservative treatment of varicose veins is carried out mainly in the early stages of its detection. With progressive pathology, although used as a postoperative prophylactic measure, it does not give visible results.
Conservative therapy involves taking certain medications:
- Venotonics (phlebotonics);
- antiplatelet agents;
In some cases, specialists prescribe multivitamin complexes and diet therapy to the patient. Physical therapy is important for patients with varicose veins, but exercise can only be performed under the supervision of an authorized instructor.
Compression stockings are used to optimize microcirculation and lymph drainage. The degree of compression is chosen by the phlebologist who is closely monitoring or treating it, but is not independent in any way. For people prone to varicose veins, it is recommended to wear a compressor as a prophylaxis, especially in certain cases (long distance travel, flights, the need to sit / stop for a long time, etc. ).
Varicose veins are a pathology, the treatment of which is best given to a specialist in the field of phlebology. Do not try to treat yourself, including folk remedies.